A brown hat with the text "LDH consulting services" next to it.

Tip of the Hat

22 November 2019

Threat, Vulnerability, or Risk?

Welcome to this week’s Tip of the Hat!

“Animal, plant, or mineral?” Most folks can, with a healthy amount of confidence, say that something is one of those three, as well as explain the differences between the three categories. It’s also a fun game to keep younger kids occupied for your next long trip.

Today we are going to introduce a variation of the game for us adults – “Threat, vulnerability, or risk?" Information privacy and security use these three terms with assessing the protection of data and other organizational assets, as well as potential harms to those assets and the organization. Many people use these terms interchangeably in daily conversations surrounding Infosec and privacy. There are differences between the three, though! To understand what it means when someone says “threat” instead of “vulnerability”, we will go over some definitions to help you differentiate between the three terms:

A Threat is a potential scenario that can cause damage or loss to an organizational asset. You might have heard the term threat actor, which refers to a specific someone or something that could be responsible for creating said harm to the organization. Note well that you do not have to demonstrate malicious intent to be a threat actor. Sometimes threat actors do not act out of malicious intent but are still a threat due to them exploiting a vulnerability in the organization.

Vulnerability refers to the weakness in any system or structure that a threat can use to cause harm to the organization. People focus on technical vulnerabilities; however, the non-technical vulnerabilities, aka your fellow humans and organizational structures, are as important to identify as your technical vulnerabilities.

Risk is the potential of damage or loss resulting from a threat taking advantage of a vulnerability. Many use an equation to calculate the amount of risk of a particular scenario: Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Cost, with Cost being the potential impact on the target by a threat.

Let’s explore these terms further with our library hat on:

What can be considered a threat?
  • Untrained/undertrained staff not following law enforcement request procedures
  • A staff member gains unauthorized access to sensitive systems or data, and modifies, exports, or deletes data to inflict harm or for their gain
  • A data breach of a vendor-hosted database


What can be considered a vulnerability?
  • Lack of access to regular privacy training and resources for staff
  • Lax or lack of system user access policies and procedures
  • Lack of or insufficient vendor privacy and security practices
  • Improper collection and storage of sensitive data by systems


What are the possible types of risk in any given scenario?
  • Legal – possible legal action due to noncompliance with applicable local, state, federal, or international regulations surrounding particular types of data
  • Reputational – “The Court of Public Opinion”; loss of patron trust; loss of trust in the vendor
  • Operational – the inability to perform critical tasks and duties to ensure uninterrupted access to core services and resources


By knowing the differences between threat, vulnerability, and risk, you can better assess the scenarios that can put your organization at higher risk of legal, reputational, or operational harm. You can also proactively mitigate these risks by addressing the vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the threats you can identify. Take some time this week to walk through the "Threat, vulnerability, or risk?" game with your colleagues, and you might be surprised by what you will find about your organization.
Have a question or topic that you want us to write about? Email us at newsletter@ldhconsultingservices.com!